• 本学国際教養学部の山田竜作教授が「世界政治学会 IPSA」で研究発表


本学国際教養学部の山田竜作教授が「世界政治学会 IPSA」で研究発表

7月10日から15日にわたって、世界政治学会 International Political Science Association (IPSA)がオンラインで開催され、本学国際教養学部の山田竜作教授が研究発表しました。


山田教授は14日に行なわれた、「市民的参加・友愛・民主主義のクオリティ」のパネルに登壇。「Pluralism, Relativism, and Authoritarianism in a Changing World: Karl Mannheim’s Legacy on the Democratization of Culture(変化する世界における多元主義・相対主義・権威主義――文化の民主化をめぐるカール・マンハイムの遺産)」と題して、民主主義の諸問題を抱える現代が1930~40年代と比較されることが多いことを念頭に、その時代に生きた忘れられがちな社会学者カール・マンハイムの重要性に言及。アイデンティティの政治や権威主義といった現代の問題は単に「多元主義の後退」を意味するのでなく、むしろさまざまな価値やアイデンティティが自己絶対化するゆえの「相対主義」という形をとっていることを指摘し、同様の問題に応戦すべくマンハイムが唱えた「文化の民主化」について、(1)基本的価値を共有する重要性、(2)民主的パーソナリティの涵養、(3)無思考性の克服、という3点が現代に残された課題であると論じました。


The aim of this paper is to reconsider significant insights of Karl Mannheim—a forgotten social and political thinker. The research question posed in this paper is, “Can today’s world be seen as an age of the retreat of pluralism from Mannheim’s viewpoint that excessive value relativism produces authoritarianism and fascism?” On the one hand, Mannheim committed himself to value pluralism and rejected the absolutization of any partial political ideas. On the other, he witnessed the collapse of the Weimar Republic, wherein politics had suffered from the extreme value relativism of ideologically exclusive political parties. In his sociology of knowledge Mannheim required each political actor to practice self-reflection through the awareness of his or her existential boundedness of thought. After his exile from Nazi Germany to England, Mannheim developed his theory of mass society, arguing that it was a disintegrating great society that resulted in irrational mass psychoses ruling the world and that this psychologically instable, changing world was a hotbed of authoritarianism and/or totalitarian dictatorship. For Mannheim—who pursued the third way between laissez-faire liberalism and totalitarianism toward the reconstruction of society—pluralism without shared values would emerge as intolerant relativism, and this situation would bring about fascist views that a bad decision is better than no decision. Mannheim criticized two aspects of laissez-faire liberalism: anarchical competition and value relativism, both created social unrest in which authoritarian personality was employed. He called for the democratization of culture that included social education for both producing elites with democratic personality and raising common people’s political and social awareness. My methodology in this paper is to interpret Mannheim’s idea about fascism and mass society based on the connection between pluralism and relativism and to apply it to contemporary liberal democracy. I will show a Mannheimian perspective, in that today’s crisis is not necessarily a simple retreat of pluralism but rather a rise of value-relativistic pluralism accompanying exclusive self-absolutization against a backdrop of anarchical neo-liberalism.